First-Year Program Fall Course Descriptions

During your first semester, you will live alongside classmates in your First-Year Program, making it much easier to collaborate and learn together as you embark on your FYP, an interdisciplinary, often team-taught, course that focuses on a topic of broad interest and is one of the four courses that first-year students take in the fall.  

The First-Year Program also offers courses with a Community-Based Learning (CBL) component, which expands the walls of the classroom to include the community beyond SLU. Students in CBL courses actively engage in their learning by spending two hours a week outside of class time in a placement with one of our community partners. Students then bring the world outside back into the classroom to connect their placement experiences with course content.

Complete the FYP College Preference Form, Housing Form, and Interests form, on your Application Status Page before May 30.

Fall 2023 Course Themes & Descriptions

Courses offered in "Changing the World: Justice & Advocacy" consider ways that change, rebellion, dissent, leadership, and other movements can promote equity in our world.

Rebels, Hipsters, Visionaries: The Beat Generation and Beyond


“The only people for me are the mad ones,” Jack Kerouac wrote in one of the defining passages of the Beat Generation. Erupting in the late 1940s, the literary movement influenced innumerable writers, artists, activists, and wanderers over the years and attracted loyal adherents in each new generation. Disrupting conventional notions of self and society and positioning themselves globally, the Beats resisted the stifling conformity of the Cold War era and restructured categories of race, gender, and sexuality. Their uniquely imaginative models for life and art flourished into new forms of social, cultural, and political radicalism in the decades to come, from the counterculture and Black and Brown power movements of the ’60 and ’70s to the punk and alternative cultures of the ’80s and ’90s up to the activist movements of the present. The course will focus on key figures and moments in this lineage of rebellion, leading up to a “kindred spirits” project that will give students the opportunity to repurpose the spirit of these visionaries through the particular lens of their own generation.

The Devil's Music: Music Censorship Today


When rock-and-roll surged in popularity in the mid-1950s, some groups were horrified by the “savage rhythms” and the sexual double entendre of the lyrics, calling it, “the Devil’s music.” Beatles’ records were burned in 1966, and much censorship followed such as banning certain videos from MTV, numerous groups were prevented from performing on TV shows, and songs were cut from the radio.  However, music censorship is not only a 20th C phenomenon, nor is it unique to any one culture.  Music has been banned outright, had strict limitations placed on its dissemination, or at the very least, was labeled as a danger to the moral fabric of human society. Throughout this course, we will explore various case studies across vastly differing cultures wherein music was considered to be the work of the devil, and we will examine the impacts that such judgments had on the music. Any discussion of musical genres will benefit from a survey of the history of the genre as well as an understanding of the musical forms themselves.

Conservation in Our Backyards: Resilient Gardens

Pai / R. Sturges

Trespassing through the side lots and backyards of childhood, we may have encountered gardens—well-tended rows of vegetables, or long-abandoned flowers that still might bloom among the weeds, or a seemingly wild landscape that nevertheless hinted at some effort of arrangement. In this course, we’ll explore themes of environmental aesthetics, conservation, and the management of nature. We will incorporate scientific as well as cultural perspectives when discussing gardens. We’ll read Michael Pollan’s Second Nature: A Gardener’s Education along with selections from Keeping Eden: A History of Gardening in America. And, as we tour extension farms, working farms, and the flower-filled gardens of master gardeners, we will examine how choices made about the landscape in the past affect what we see today. We will strive to build a community of peers who share similar interests in environmental justice and the natural world. This course also provides a foundation of college-level skills, including critical thinking and oral and written communication skills.

Explaining and Changing the Social World


The world is plagued by social problems that seem difficult if not impossible to address. If we stand a chance of addressing them at all, we need to understand both why these problems have emerged and, from there, what our best explanations suggest about what, if anything, we can do. In this course, we will dive into explanations of a particularly pressing social problem: the existence of poverty. First, we will explore the different sociological explanations for the existence of poverty. Then, we will explore the philosophical underpinnings of these explanations and engage with philosophical questions about economic justice, like: what kind of society do we want? What is justice, and (how) can we make our society a just one? Ultimately, our aim will be to think about a big and challenging, but ultimately practical, question: what would it take to get rid of poverty and, therefore, promote a more just and equitable world?

Our Animal Kin: Exploring Human-Animal Relationships

M. Sturges / Wolfe

This course explores human-animal connections and their spiritual and ethical implications. Moving between writings from Western and Indigenous worldviews, we consider how humans have rightfully or wrongfully imagined animals over time and across cultures, the relationships we have forged with other animals (including those that are currently under threat and that have recently been lost in an age of 'species loneliness'), and what obligations and responsibilities we may have to safeguard and foster the welfare of other species. Through the lens of these relationships, not only will we confront some of the most pressing environmental issues of our time, but we’ll also challenge the boundaries between humans and other animals and seek to connect with the wild within ourselves. Crafting skills in creative non-fiction, students compose and tell stories about their own animal connections and, later, hone the art of persuasive writing by composing an argumentative essay taking a position on an issue in animal ethics.

Courses offered in "The Intentional Life: Interconnectedness & Wellness" seek out practices, discussions, and ways of being intentionally connected to one another in our daily lives through our work and our play.

Finding Global Healing in Self-Awareness


In this course, we will explore the concept of overall well-being. We will learn about some of the social impacts (general factors acting at the level of society) on mental health, such as class, gender, family, and peer networks. We will also learn about some of the psychological factors or individual-level processes, such as trauma, grief, personality.  We will reflect on ways we can emphasize human strengths, positive emotions, and well-being with reflective journaling, creative class activities, and class discussion. At the same time, this course will investigate big questions about how we define well-being, including whether it is the same across cultures and how we can achieve it.

Positively Morbid


Welcome future corpses! While preparing you for academic challenges we will investigate and discuss interests in any aspect of death and dying. Did you know that NY recently legalized human composting? Ever heard of the Threshold Choirs? With over 150 chapters around the world, the choirs offer to sing to individuals as they die. Have you heard that the living and the dead compete for space, especially in places like Taipei? Death is a part of everyone's life. Dealing with death and dying affects us emotionally, physically, mentally, spiritually, culturally, financially, environmentally…you get the idea. We should work to understand more about it.

Your Place in the World: What It Means to be Local

Exoo / Jewell

This course asks how we develop our understanding of culture, our sense of place, and what it means to be "local.” By examining a broad range of topics, from local issues in St. Lawrence County to food systems and factory farming in America, we will consider how we contribute to and draw from our local environment. We will explore this theme through various texts, including memoirs, fiction, poetry, and documentaries; these works help us question how we interact with and fit into our sometimes strange world.

The Science of the Self


How do scientists define and study a concept as abstract and philosophical as the self? We will begin by grounding our understanding of the self through a classic work by William James called The Principles of Psychology. From there we will start to unpack the self by exploring the evidence for and variations between theories of personality, identity (e.g., gender), memory and intelligence, and consciousness. We will also consider how social media and technology influence our “virtual self”, why we are prone to stereotypes and biases and what we can do to mitigate them, and how the narrative we form about ourselves is essential to our self-concept. Our unpacking of the self will acknowledge perspectives from social and cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and behavioral genetics. The source materials will consist of journal articles (research reports and reviews published by experts in their field) and chapters from several books written by scientists for general audiences, as well as the occasional literary work and film. This course is designed for students interested in the behavioral sciences and will emphasize the development and refinement of communication skills.

An Outdoor State of Mind (+ pre-trip)


Why do many of us seek out the natural world as a place to play, experience adventure, relieve stress, and rest our minds?  What is it about spending time and engaging in physical activity in the outdoors that seems to attract and heal many of us? In this college, we will explore different narratives of the outdoor experience and different ways to engage with nature. We will think about these topics from an individual, community, and global scale and will do this through hands-on experience, reading, writing, and reflection.   

As part of our inquiry, we will critically examine our own experiences in nature, and practice basic skills needed to safely and responsibly recreate in nature.  Prior experience with outdoor activities such as hiking, camping, and paddling are not required; anyone with an interest in the outdoors, and a willingness to safely step outside their comfort zone, will do well in this college. Students will spend time doing outdoor activities on a regular basis. 

All FYP members of this college will participate in the Adirondack Adventure St. Lawrence University Pre-Orientation trip in August and two full weekend wilderness trips over the semester. Students should plan on attending all field components for this course. No outdoor experience is necessary, but a desire to be active in the outdoors for extended periods of time, to go camping, and to challenge one's self is required.

Note that practices and games for fall sports and International Student Orientation will conflict with the pre-orientation trips and weekend trips for this course. Otherwise, any incoming student, of any skill level, is eligible to participate.

Learn more about the North Country pre-orientation trips

Questions? Contact the Outdoor Program at 315-229-5015, the Office of Student Activities & Leadership at 315-229-5757, or the First-Year Program at 315-229-5909. 

Say What? Let's Talk: Learning to Listen & Speak Across Difference

Oey / Papineau

Have you ever found yourself wondering, “Did that person just say that?”? Have you ever felt like someone just didn’t understand where you were coming from? Have you ever found yourself caught off-guard by a comment and weren't sure how to respond? In this course, students will look deeply at their personal and social identities and how those identities shape their perspectives and life experiences. Topics will include emotional intelligence, active listening, empathy, civility, and other topics as they relate to diversity and inclusion. Students will engage in class exercises and deliberative dialogue that will increase their abilities to manage difficult conversations. This formal process--called InterGroup Dialogue (IGD)--explores how to talk across difference. IGD allows for critical self-reflection and offers the opportunity to challenge biases while building skills of listening, multiple perspective taking, and holding judgement “softly”.

Intentional Wellness

Francey Towle

Wellness has become a part of mainstream discourse like never before, and the result can be an overwhelming barrage of information.  But here’s one simple truth- Wellness impacts every aspect of life. 
In this course we will explore the science behind living with intentional wellness. From stress management and breathing that increases oxygen absorption, to posture that improves hormones and mindfulness to steady the heart rate, to studying the Blue Zones and understanding the health benefits of fostering fulfilling relationships. We will take on the task of demystifying the science, simplifying the research, considering the efficacy of implementing more wellness into our lives, and developing a plan to positively impact our campus community.

Courses in "Figuring it Out: Purpose, Problems & Solutions" engage students in probing problems or purpose to understand solutions and why some are more readily solved than others.

Sherlock Holmes and the Art and Science of Reasoning


Sherlock Holmes is perhaps fiction's greatest detective.  In this course, we will examine the Holmes stories through a philosophical and scientific lens in order to understand how to reason critically and responsibly. Students will learn techniques for identifying, evaluating, and creating arguments, as well as how to use these skills to communicate clearly and be more successful in all of their courses.  We will also focus on how to reduce the influence of cognitive bias, how misinformation spreads through social networks, and how to reason critically about science.  By the end of the course, students will be better prepared to reason through complex issues, both in and out of the classroom (but no promises about your ability to solve crimes).

What is the university for?


Is going to university “worth it”?  And if so why?  What should we – as individuals and as a society –expect of our universities and of the university experience?  These are not idle questions.  Students and their families invest money, time, and not a little emotion in the process of getting into “the right school” and “the right major.”  We expect universities to be places of learning, of research, of personal growth, and a path to economic success.  Liberals and progressives have often envisioned universities as engines of social change and social justice.  Conservatives worry that these same goals are code for indoctrination.  As you enter university, what better time to take these questions head on, to think about what the goals of your university should be and, indeed, what your goals and priorities should be while you are here.  You are in university now.  What does that mean?  What should it mean?

Food, Self, and Society (CBL)

Ammirati / Harr 

Food connects you in countless ways to other people and to the planet. This course will help you understand the complex relationships we form between food, the self, society, and the environment. We will explore the cultural roles of food throughout the world, considering topics such as globalization, migration, sustainability, food sovereignty, food taboos, and food traditions. A key “textbook” for this class will be a Community-Based Learning placement with local organic farms. Outside of class meetings, students will spend around two hours per week together learning about the practicalities of food production by harvesting and preserving food. The experiential learning will continue as you cook some of this delicious local produce. Join us for an intellectual feast!

What is CBL?

This course includes an experiential learning component known as Community-Based Learning (CBL). The CBL component expands the walls of the classroom to include the community beyond SLU. Students in CBL courses actively engage in their learning by spending two hours a week outside of class time in a placement with one of our community partners. Students then bring the world outside back into the classroom to connect their placement experiences with course content. (Travel time to and from the site is not included and is moderate for placements beyond the Canton community. Students do not need a vehicle to participate in CBL classes.)

Courses in "Human Invention: Knowledge, Practice & Action" focus on understanding the how and the why, but ultimately end up practicing the “doing."

From Wonderland to Diagon Alley: Children's Literature & Its Life-long Lessons


Strong claims have been made regarding the power and influence of children’s books.  Alison Lurie, for example, suggests that they provide “…other views of human life besides those of the shopping mall and the corporation.”  Sherman Alexie believes “…the age at which you find the book with which you truly identify determines the rest of your reading life.” Are stories for children a delightful distraction—or powerful forces that shape the adults we become?  Much like the lemonade stand at the end of the driveway that first taught us how to turn a profit, stories teach us life lessons while engaging our imaginations. In this class, we will examine how literature for children can both reflect and shape culture through its depiction of families, animals, and even historical events. We will also explore the ways these depictions have been expressed, from allegory to fantasy to realist fiction. Eventually, you will share a piece of children’s literature with young children in the community and create your own piece of children’s literature, using what you have learned in the class to make purposeful decisions about its shape and its content. 

The Pen and the Knife: Poetry and Printmaking

Barber / Schulenberg

If you want to make original art, this course is for you. You’ll be learning how to make linocut prints—which you’ll carve and critique—and about poetry—which you’ll draft and workshop. You’ll keep a sketchbook for daily practice at the serious play that goes into making art. You’ll spend time at the Brush Gallery and the library’s Special Collections. Finally, you'll learn to analyze and to write about images and poems. At the end of the semester, you’ll formally present your own work. 

What’s That Sound?


“Stop, children, what’s that sound?  Everybody look what’s going down” sang Buffalo Springfield in a song that became an anthem of the 60s.  This class is centered on the question: what is sound, and what role does sound play in our lives?  We’ll explore sound from the perspective of physics, biology, medicine, folklore, history, politics, craftsmanship, technology, and music.  We will engage sound by meeting and speaking with people whose lives and careers are centered on sound, and we’ll explore the sounds of the SLU campus.  We will also make our own sounds, from drumming the rhythms of different cultures to learning to use music-making technology to craft our own compositions.  We will shape sound, and explore how sounds shape us.  So, as musicians say, “get your ears out,” and let’s discover what’s going down with sound.

The Third Dimension of Books: Visionaries, Printers, and the Artist Book


People can, and do, make art out of pretty much anything.  We’re going to examine making art through books, that is, examine how people use the form of the book the way a painter might use oil and canvas.  You will become familiar with Artists Books, constructions based on books that create unique visual and tactile experiences.  You will be examining, researching, and writing about Artists Books in the St Lawrence University Libraries collection, and you’ll be trying your hand at making one.  We’ll make art together, art up from the book—no experience necessary, just a willingness to rethink something you thought you knew. 

Do-It-Yourself Theatre: Taking a Play from Concept to Performance

Sweigart-Gallagher / Cooper

Develop your leadership, collaboration, and problem-solving skills in DIY Theatre! Students enrolled in DIY Theatre will work collaboratively throughout the semester to produce a full-length theatrical performance as part of University Theatre's 2023-2024 Season. Students enrolled in this course will learn to apply script analysis, research, and writing skills to increase their understanding of dramatic texts. Students will learn about the different roles and responsibilities that make a theatre production possible, as well as the different steps of the production process. Under the mentorship of faculty, students will serve as scenic, lighting, and costume designers, as well as performers, stage managers, box office, and house managers in order to gain hands-on experience in taking a play from production concept to final performance. First-time theatre-makers and performers are welcome!

Making an Impact Through Art Exhibition


Curate an exhibition! This course explores the kinds of messages we can send (intentionally and unintentionally) through the organization, display, and description of works of art in exhibitions. What are some of the possibilities and challenges that physical and virtual exhibition practices create in a culturally diverse world? In this rare, inside peek into the exciting world of exhibition curation and design, groups of students will put together their own exhibitions using artworks from the Brush Gallery permanent collection and possibly other works from campus and surrounding community groups.

Courses in "New Horizons: Global & Historical Conversations" invite students to investigate a culture, time, space, and/or place different than St. Lawrence University in the contemporary time.

Visions of Hell


The pit, flames, demons, hungry ghosts.  Different religions imagine different sorts of hells: Greek mythology has its underworld, Buddhism has hell realms and hungry ghost realms, Christianity has its hell, and Old Norse mythology has its own Hel. We will consider the differences and similarities in these visions of hell and what cultural purposes they serve because, although hell and its heavenly counterparts are places of the afterlife, they tell us as much about humans in the here and now as they do the world to come.  Questions of morality and the preservation of the self beyond death are just two topics we will consider. In doing so, we’ll read about many versions of hell, and a heaven or two also.  Readings will include selections from such works as Dante’s Inferno, the Buddhist Tipitika, and selected Greek and Old Norse myths.  We will explore works of art that depict hell and religious rituals associated with ghosts and the afterlife.  No particular religious or spiritual background or knowledge of religion is expected for the course. 

Coldest Cold War Flicks

Jockel / Sieja

This course will examine the earliest and coldest days of the Cold War, a period extending from the end of World War II in 1945 to the signing of the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963, through a sampling of historical texts and American movies made during that time. Movies are often more than just mindless escapism: the stories and texts continually recast by our culture not only entertain but also can provide a window into who we are, and were. We will look at how the motion pictures of the day reflected the major preoccupations of the early Cold War era, chief among them dealing with nuclear weapons, responding to the Soviet communist threat and undertaking America’s new responsibilities abroad, as well as enjoying prosperity and mobility at home in the new suburbs while spawning a generation that eventually would be called the “boomers.” Special attention will be paid to the noir films of the 1940s and 1950s, family melodramas such as Mildred Pierce and Rebel Without a Cause, science fiction films of the 1950s such as The Day the Earth Stood Still, and nuclear war films such as On the Beach and Dr. Strangelove. 

Ghost Stories and Other Haunted Histories


What can we learn about our present when the past refuses to stay in the past? Even if you don’t believe in ghosts, their stories and how they linger can reveal interesting insights into the values, attitudes, and beliefs of their stewards. In this class, we will explore ghostly stories and the people, places, and ideas they haunt. To do so, we’ll investigate selected hauntings from North America, encountering specters in movies and television shows, cities, parks, and college campuses.

Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism in Film


This course examines the essence of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism by exploring the rich, colorful, and fascinating religious world in Asian literature and film. Topics include Confucian ethics, Taoist fairytales, dream adventure, longevity practice, and Buddhist salvation, retribution, chan/zen, magical arts, as well as religious ideas in film and their relationship with modern society. A variety of materials will be used, including Confucian and Taoist classics, Buddhist scriptures, fiction and films, as well as modern scholarly publications. All readings are in English.

By taking this course, students will 1) acquire a fundamental knowledge about Buddhism, one of the three major religions in the world, Taoism, the wide-spreading Chinese philosophy and religion, and Confucianism, the core of Chinese philosophy and culture; 2) savor wisdom and mysticism in the east, which are included mainly in the Taoist classics, Chan/Zen Buddhism, and literary works; 3) enjoy the best literary works and films in Asia; and 4) acquire useful knowledge about scholarly works; and develop skills of critical thinking and scholarly research.

How to Tell a True War Story: The American War Film Since Vietnam


We will interrogate Hollywood's "war movie" genre, focusing on those produced since roughly 1980, screening films like Apocalypse Now, Full Metal Jacket, Saving Private Ryan, The Thin, Red Line, and American Sniper.  Though these films are considered “popular,” each engages with historiography (the composing of history and histories) by presenting the viewer with a narrative vision of the past, one which deserves close critical scrutiny since these films may be the only “texts” younger generations will encounter which deal with these conflicts.  We will ask whether it's in fact possible to tell a true war story or whether combat is in fact an incommunicable experience; whether it is good to tell a true war story (or make a good war film) or if to represent war is to perpetuate what Tim O'Brien calls "a terrible, old lie;" and whether many of the best war movies are actually ANTI-war movies.  We'll look at representations of race and gender in these films, and consider the ways we respond to movies, trying our hands at movie reviewing and more formal film criticism. *Popcorn not included.

European Cinema and the Quest for Freedom


This course examines topics in European and trans-European cinema, including film theory, aesthetics, nationalism, and gender roles. During the term, we will focus on five directors whose films exemplify specific geographical, linguistic, and cultural areas, but also a variety of cinematographic styles, ideologies, and artistic concerns. Students will gain familiarity with the methods and terminology of classical film analysis, all the while delving into the visual layers of filmmaking, with a particular emphasis on mise-en-scène, set and custom design, and shooting techniques.

Intercultural Communication and Leadership


Interested in studying abroad or learning about other cultures? Want to understand the hidden rules that help frame national culture? Do you want to understand your own cultural identity, leadership style, and the intersections that influence your behavior and tendencies? This course is designed to increase a greater self-awareness and exploration of one’s own cultural identity while instilling curiosity in learning about others. The course includes interactive pedagogy through simulation, case studies, and dialogue that helps students develop skillsets necessary to navigate cultural contexts. Framed in intercultural communication and leadership theories, students will be exposed to different leadership philosophies and require students to develop their own leadership plan. Through studying various cultural concepts, models, and taxonomies, students will increase their intercultural capital and gain practical skills for real-life application. 

Courses in "Visionary Ventures: New Advances & Entrepreneurship" explore ways to reimagine the “old”, develop the “new”, and think about ways to move from “it’s always been done this way” to “how could this be different."

Urban Green (London FYP)


Today, more than half of the world's population lives in cities. As the urban population grows, so does the demand on urban resources and the impact from energy, water, waste, air, and food. The ecology of urban systems considers the interactions of living and nonliving components and environmental planning seeks a restorative footprint. Students will develop a research project examining both the built and social system of London’s sustainable urban environment.  For example: climate resiliency, smart cities, biophilic design or alternative urban food systems. This course is Speaking Intensive.

London FYP College [fall semester only]
Students admitted to St. Lawrence are able to apply to the London FYP on-line. Applications are due by Monday, April 24 and students will be notified of acceptance before they arrive on campus.

If you are interested in applying for the London FYP, contact the Center for International and Intercultural Studies (CIIS) at 315-229-5991 or email at A separate program abroad application is required for this FYP course and you will find the application on your Application Status Page.

What is Noise?


What counts as noise? Is it the sound of birds outside your window at 4:00am? What about loud music on a street corner in the middle of the afternoon? Or a group of friends laughing in a library? The answers to these questions aren’t cut and dry. The category of “noise” is subjective and revealing: who defines what is noise and what isn’t? Who makes noise and who doesn’t? Who is able to escape noise and who must suffer through endless cacophony? The course is designed around two related themes. The first is interrogating the category of noise. How has the concept of noise been constructed as a way to define and separate groups of people? We will turn to a wide range of sources that explore how the idea of noise has been linked to larger worldviews such as racial ideologies and class distinctions. We will build from this general background to consider the world around us through sound. Drawing on models such as The London Sound Survey and “The Roaring Twenties” – which maps the historical sounds of New York City – we will explore and document both historical and contemporary sounds of St. Lawrence University and Canton, NY. What can focusing on sound help us discover about how the world around us is structured?

Community By Design

Coupland / Twedt

Arriving in a new place can be exciting and intimidating. What is it about different places that make them more comfortable than others? Using foundational theories of place and place-making, community engagement, and environmental psychology, students will investigate the features of different spaces and places that promote and impede community-building. We will use our SLU environment to critically examine how various spaces on campus, and in the broader Canton community, are designed to encourage social inclusion, engagement, and person-environment relationships.

Rural Dreams: Plight and Promise of Small Town America (CBL)


While rural areas currently account for less than a fifth of America’s population, small towns have played an outsized role in the nation’s history, political economy, and understanding of itself, even as they have faced existential challenges for much of the past century. Whatever the size of your hometown, exploring small-town America—of which Canton, NY (population 6,500) is just one example—is an opportunity to address economic, political, and social questions and explore entrepreneurial solutions to real-world problems. In this course, we will closely examine the histories, present circumstances, and potential futures of rural America; debate whether small towns and their way of life need or deserve special protections; and consider what we can do about rural poverty, environmental problems, and the growing urban/rural divide. The class will put special emphasis on learning about our region and surrounding communities.

What is CBL?

This course includes an experiential learning component known as Community-Based Learning (CBL). The CBL component expands the walls of the classroom to include the community beyond SLU. Students in CBL courses actively engage in their learning by spending two hours a week outside of class time in a placement with one of our community partners. Students then bring the world outside back into the classroom to connect their placement experiences with course content. (Travel time to and from the site is not included and is moderate for placements beyond the Canton community. Students do not need a vehicle to participate in CBL classes.)