Citing Sources in Your Text | St. Lawrence University WORD Studio

Citing Sources in Your Text

1. If you quote directly and include the author's name in your sentence:
Hart (1996) wrote that some primatologists "wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L" (p. 109).
When the author's name is included in a signal phrase, cite the year of publication parenthetically after the name, with the page number cited after the end of the quotation.

2. If you quote directly without the author's name in your sentence:
Some primatologists "wondered if apes had learned Language, with a capital L" (Hart, 1996, p.109).
When the author's name is not included in your sentence, put name, date, and page number in a single parenthetical citation following the quotation.

3. If you summarize or paraphrase and use the author's name:
According to Hart (1996), researchers took Terrace's conclusions seriously, and funding for language experiments soon declined.

4. If you summarize or paraphrase without the author's name:
Researchers took Terrace's conclusions seriously, and funding for language experiments soon declined (Hart, 1996).
A page number is not required for a summary or a paraphrase, but include one if it would help readers find the passage in a long work.

5. If you cite a work with two authors:
Greenfield and Savage-Rumbaugh (1990) have acknowledged that Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (p. 567).
Kanzi's linguistic development was slower than that of a human child (Greenfield & Savage-Rumbaugh, 1990, p. 567).
Name both authors in the signal phrase or parentheses each time you cite the work. In the parentheses, use "&" between the authors' names; in the signal phrase, use "and."