American Psychological Association (APA) | St. Lawrence University WORD Studio

American Psychological Association (APA)

Making a References Page
(All entries should be double-spaced, though I have single-spaced them here.)

General notes:

  • Your References Page should be a separate page
  • Sources should be alphabetized by author’s last name. If there is no author, alphabetize by the first important word in the title
  • Initials are used for author’s first and middle names
  • Corporations, organizations, and government agencies can be authors
  • The title (References) should be centered, and not bold or underlined • First entry lines should be at the margin, additional lines indented five spaces from margin
  • Entire References page should be double-spaced, with no additional space in between entries
  • Date of publication appears after the first element of the entry
  • Titles of books, journals, newspapers, and entire web sites are italicized
  • Titles of articles and chapters or sections from web sites are not italicized, underlined, or put in quotations
  • Usually, only the first word of a title will be capitalized (see first entry below)

A short sample with different kinds of sources:

References
Berkowitz, R.I. (2003). Behavior therapy and sibutramine for the treatment of adolescent obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 1805-1812.
Crister, G. (2003). Fat land. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. (2004, February). The role of media in childhood obesity.

(The sources above are an article from a journal, a book, and a web site.)

APA References Page Entries for Common Sources

The first part of the entry: The author/s and date (What comes after this first part depends on the source you are citing.)

1. One Author Last name, Initials. (Date).

2. Multiple Authors Up to seven authors can be listed by last name and initials. Before the name of the last author, use an ampersand (&). If there are more than seven: After the first six, give three ellipsis dots and the name of the last author, like so: Mulvaney, S.A., Mudasiru, K., Schlundt, D.G., Smith, K., Fleming, M., VanderWoude, A., …Rothman, R. (2008).

3. Organizational Author Begin entry with organization as author.

4. Unknown Author Begin entry with title of work. Book titles are italicized, but article titles are neither italicized or in quotation marks.

5. Two or More Works by the Same Author Use the author’s name for all entries, and list entries by year with the earliest first.

Next…If you have an article from a periodical (journal, magazine, or newspaper): Author’s last name, initials. (Date or publication). Title of article. Title of periodical, issue or volume number, pages referenced.

Example (for a journal): Morawski, J. (2000). Social Psychology a century ago. American Psychologist, 55, 427-431.

If you have a book:

1. Basic Format Author’s last name, initials. (Date of publication). Title of book. City published in, State published in: Publisher. Example: Highmore, B. (2001), Everyday life and cultural theory. New York, NY: Routledge.

2. Book with an author and an editor Example: Highmore, B. (2001), Everyday life and cultural theory. ( M.V. Kukil, Ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

If you have an article from a database:
Cite as from a physical journal. Then, if there is a “DOI” (Digital Object Identifier), include this at the end of the citation. Ex: Holliday, R.E., & Hayes, B.K. (2000). Dissociating automatic and intentional processes in children’s memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 1-35. Doi: 10.1006/jecp.1999.2521. If there is no DOI, include the URL for the journal’s homepage. Ex: Holliday, R.E., & Hayes, B.K. (2000). Dissociating automatic and intentional processes in children’s memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 75, 1-35. Retrieved from http://jsn.sagepub.com