In this course, we examine and analyze the music of a region where social and political life has changed dramatically and frequently during the last 150 years. From the revolutions of 1848 to the post-communist struggles of the 1990s, music and musicians often have been drawn into debates about national and regional identities. We proceed from the assumption that notions of identity and difference are evident not only in discourse about musical practices, but also in musical sound itself. Offered occasionally. Prerequisite: MUS 100/101, 200/201, or permission of the instructor. Also offered through European Studies and Peace Studies.